Audiobooks – March 2019

An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen

A huge amount of practical advice and how and where to find the best food both locally and abroad. Plus good explanations as to why. 8/10

The Not-Quite States of America: Dispatches from the Territories and Other Far-Flung Outposts of the USA by Doug Mack

Writer tours the not-states of the USA. A bit too fluffy most of the time & too much hanging with US expats. Some interesting bits. 6/10

Shattered: Inside Hillary Clinton’s Doomed Campaign by Jonathan Allen & Amie Parnes

Chronology of the campaign based on background interviews with staffers. A ready needs a good knowledge of the race since this is assumed. Interesting enough. 7/10

Rush Hour by Iain Gatel

A history of commuting (from the early railway era), how it has driven changes in housing, work and society. Plus lots of other random stuff. Very pleasant. 8/10

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Audiobooks – February 2019

Tamed: Ten Species that Changed our World by Alice Roberts

Plenty of content (14 hours) and not too dumbed down. About 8 of the 10 species are the ones you’d expect. 8/10

It Won’t Be Easy: An Exceedingly Honest (and Slightly Unprofessional) Love Letter to Teaching by Tom Rademacher

A breezy little book about the realities of teaching (at least in the US). Interesting to outsiders & hopefully useful to those in the profession. 7/10

The Hobbit by J. R. R Tolkien, Read by Rob Inglis

A good audio-edition of the book. Unabridged & really the default one for most people. I alternated chapters of this with the excellent Prancing Pony Podcast commentaries on those chapters. 9/10

The Life of Greece: The Story of Civilization, Volume 2 (The Story of Civilization series) by Will Durant

32 hours on the history of Ancient Greece. Seemed to cover just above everything. Written in the 1930s so probably a little out-of-date in places. 7/10

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Audiobooks – January 2019

The Grandmaster: Magnus Carlsen and the Match That Made Chess Great Again by Brin-Jonathan Butler

Not a lot about the match. The author rolls out a bunch of random chess stories and profiles instead. 4/10

The Next American City: The Big Promise of Our Midsize Metros by Mick Cornett

The four-term Mayor of Oklahoma City goes over projects OC and other mid-sized cities implemented to improve their cities & fight back against the large metros. 8/10

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

Apparently a lot of expanded essays but still a lot of interesting stuff in there. The good ones are great and the bad ones are okay. 7/10

Chasing the Demon: A Secret History of the Quest for the Sound Barrier, and the Band of American Aces Who Conquered It by Dan Hampton

Covers some early aircraft and aerodynamics history, then the lives of pilots who would break the sound barrier & then the actual event (or events!). 7/10

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Linux.conf.au 2019 – Friday – Lightning talks and Conference Close

Closing Stuff

  • Special Badge given out
  • Projects from Junior Group from Club Penguin
  • Rusty Wrench award to Joshua Hesketh

Lightning Talks

  • 3 minutes each
  • Martin Kraft
    • Digital trust and trust in the real world
    • In real world it is wired into our brains
    • Aunt’s Laptop. Has Trusted CAs, Debian.
    • Doesn’t know what lock on browser means
    • Imaging that trust is a competition that happens in real time, that takes interactions, mood, random stuff.
    • Maybe when you visit a good vs bad website the browser looks visably different
    • Machine Learning
  • Brimly Collings-Stone
    • Maori language not available on AAC outputs
    • Need a device that speaks Maori and represents Maori grammar accurately
  • Mathew Sherborn
    • RSI
    • Got it in the past, tried various keyboards
    • Type-Matrix but it broke
    • ErgoDox – open source keyboard
    • Mascot.com – Keyboard in batch orders
    • Like the ErgoDox-E – $500 but good – web app to program
    • Change the Dvorak keyboard with special keyboard
  • Emma Springkmeier
    • What do I do when it all goes wrong
    • Potentially stressful situations – phone calls, meetings.
    • eg last year’s lightning talk
    • What I do to cope
    • Talk to friends, explain how I feel to others, listening to calming music, breathing techniques ( 4s in, 4s hold, 4 out, 4 holding, repeat )
  • Karl Kitcher
    • Secretary of the NZ Open Source Society
    • Charity since 2008
    • Reducing in interest in the recent years
    • Open source is not so prevalent, people not really caring, trying to maintain the momentium
    • Open vs Fauxpem
    • nzoss.nz – signup to the mailing list
    • Various services to projects
  • Leon Wright
    • About Leon’s badge
    • Twitter bot hooked to hug detector in his badge
    • 2017 badge detects hugs
    • 2018 version 2 . So good twitter shadow banned his account
    • 2019 – Docker containers and other crazy stuff
  • Talia White
    • At LCA since 2018 – Was only 8. Now 12
    • Ordered a robot kit for ardiano
    • Made various projects
    • Don’t give up, struggled to start with coding, got better
  • Brenda Wallace
    • Works for the NZ Govt
    • Sometimes abigious
    • Going to publish for some legislation as python rules
    • rules.nz
    • eg Social welfare rules,
    • Unit tests
  • Paul Gunn Stephen
    • GDP per km of coastline
    • %coastline length for area
    • Means hard to get Tsunami warning systems
    • Cheaper
    • ETC Lali system approach
    • Every Village has a local warning system
    • Redundant system
  • E Dunham
    • You should speak at conferences
    • 54th talk in 5 years
    • Promotes your company
    • Intersection: What you know, what conference needs and what the attendees needs
    • Find conference want to attend
    • Write abstract
    • Submit a lot, get rejected a lot
    • Each reject is how you dodged a bullet
  • Charell
    • CVE-2019-3462
    • Bug in apt that allows injection of bad content
    • Why https
    • Attestation
    • apt-transport-https – enable
  • Jen Zajac
    • Project scaffolding eg Cookiecutter, yoeman
    • Lots of generating options
    • Creates templates for a project
  • Hugh Blemmings
    • Ardionu and Beagleboard
    • Cool but not high performance
    • A True open and HP computer
    • Open Hardware, Open software stack, no bin blobs, No unexpected software, No cost/perf penality
    • openpowerfoundation.org
  • Benno Rice
    • Cobol
    • Over 50 years old
    • Not used much
    • What Language is the new Cobol?
    • PHP is the new COBOL
    • Perl is the new COBOL
    • Python2 ?
    • Javascript ?
    • C ?
    • Y2K – Maybe the real Cobol is the maintenance we incurred along the way
    • Maybe you should support software before it bites you back

Closing Stuff

  • 652 people attended
  • 2.4TB transferred over the SSID
  • 3113 Coffee vouchers

Lots of sponsors and suppliers and staff thanked

Linux.conf.au 2020 is in …. Gold Coast

  • Linux.conf.au 21st birthday!
  • Gold Coast convention and Exhibition centre
  • 13 – 17th January 2020

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Linux.conf.au 2019 – Friday – Session 2

OpenLI: Lawful Intercept Without the Massive Price Tag
– Shane Alcock

Shane Alcock
  • Police get Warrent to ISP
  • ISP Obligations
    • Can’t tip off person being intercepted
    • Both current and past intercepts must be private
    • Can’t accept other people’s communications
    • Must accept all communications
  • NZ Lawful Intercept
    • All Providers with more than 4000 customers must be LI capable
    • Must be streamed live
    • TCP/IP over tunnel
    • Higher level agencies have extra requirements
    • 2 seperate handovers – IRI metadata for calls, IP sessions. CC= data packets
  • Open LI
    • $10,000s – $100,000s costs to impliment and license from vendors
    • WAND had some experise in packet collection
    • Known my NZ Network Operator community
    • Voluntary contributions from NZ Network Operators
    • $10k+ each
    • Buys 50% of my time to work on it for a year.
    • Avoiding Free Rider problem
      • Early access for supporters
      • Dev assistence with deployment
      • Priority support for bugs and features
  • Building Blocks
    • Developed and tested on Debian
    • Should work on other Linux flavours
    • Written in C – fast and likes writing C
    • Use libtrace from WAND
    • Data Plane Develop Kit
  • Provisioner
    • Interface for operators
    • Not very busy
  • Collector
    • Comms from Provisioner
    • Intercept instructions
    • Recommended run on bare-metal
    • 1RU Server with 10G interface with DPDK support
    • Supports multiple collectors
  • Mediator
    • Gets data from Collector
    • Forwards to Agency based on instructions from Provisioner
  • Target Identification
    • Nothing on the packets linked to target user
    • People get dynamic IPs, can change
    • For VOIP calls need to know RDP port
    • SIP for VIP , Radius to IP to ID the user’s IPs/Ports
    • Deriving caller identities from SIP packets can be tricky. Other headers can be used, depends on various factors
  • Performance Matters
    • 1Gb/s plans are available to residential customers
    • ISP may have multiple customers being intercepted. Collector must not drop packets
    • Aim to support multiple Gb/s of data
    • libtrace lets use spread load across multiple interfaces, cpus etc
    • But packets now be in multiple threads
    • Lots of threads to keep things all in sync
  • Status
  • Future
    • Build user-driver community around the software
  • Questions
    • Can it handle a hotel? – maybe
    • ISPs or police contributing? – Not yet
    • What have people been doing so far? – They have been gettign away with saying they will use this
    • What about bad guys using? – This probably doesn’t give them any more functionality
    • Larger Operators? – Gone with Vendor Solutions
    • Overseas Interest? – One from Khazakstan , but targetted at small operators
    • Why not Rust, worry about parsing data – Didn’t have time to learn Rust

But Mummy I don’t want to use CUDA – Open source GPU compute
Dave Airlie

Dave Airlie
  • Use Cases
    • AI/ML – Tensorflow
    • HPC – On big supercomputers
    • Scientific – Big datasets, maybe not on big clusters
  • What APIs Exist
    • CUDA
      • NVIDIA defined
      • Closed Source
      • C++ Based single source
      • Lots of support libraries ( BLAS, CiDNN ) from NVIDIA
    • API – HIP
      • AMD Defined
      • Sourcecode released on github
      • C++ based single source
    • OPenCL
      • Khronos Standard
      • Open and Closed implimentations
      • 1.2 v 2.0
      • OpenCL C/C++ Not single source (GPU and CPU code separate)
      • Online vs offline compilation (Online means final compilation at run time)
      • SPIR-V kernel
    • SYCL
      • Khronos Standard
      • C++ Single source
      • CPU Launch via OpenMP
      • GPU launch via OpenCL
      • Closed (codeplay) vs Open(triSYS)
      • Opening of implementation in Progress (from Intel – Jan 2019)
    • Others
      • C++AMP – MS
      • OPenMP – Gettign better for GPUs
      • OpenACC
      • Vulkan Compute
        • Low level submission API
        • Maybe
    • Future
      • C++ standard
      • C++ ISO standards body, ongoing input from everybody
      • Implementations must be tested
      • Still needs execution environment
  • Components of GPU stack
    • Source -> Compiler
    • Output of GPU and CPU code
  • IR
    • Intermediate representation
    • Between source and final binary
    • NVIDIA PTX – liek assemble
  • OpenCL Stacks
    • Vendor Specific
    • LLVM Forks
  • Open Source
    • Development vs Release Model
    • Vendors don’t want to support ports to competitors hardware
    • Distro challenges
      • No idea on future directions
      • Large bodies of code
      • Very little common code
      • Forked llvm/clang everywhere in code
  • Proposed Stack
    • Needs reference implementation
    • vendor neutral, runs on multiple vendors
    • Shared Code based (eg one copy of clang, llvm)
    • Standards based
    • Common API for runtime
    • Common IR as much as possible
    • Common Tooling – eg single debugger
    • SPIR-V in executable -> NIR -> HW Finaliser
    • Maybe Intel’s implementation will do this
  • Questions
    • Vulkan on top of Metal/Molten ? – Don’t know
    • Lots of other questions I didn’t understand enough to write

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Linux.conf.au 2019 – Friday – Session 1

Preventing the IoT Dystopia with Copyleft- Bradley M. Kuhn

Bradley M. Kuhn
  • The S in IoT stands for Security
  • Many stories of people hacking into baby monitors and home cameras
  • IoT Devices often phone home to manufactorers website in order that you can access then remotely. “I suppose there are Chinese hackers watching my Dogs all day, I hope they will call me if they need water etc”
  • Open source people have historically worked to get around problems like this.
  • 1992 – If you wanted Linux, you downloaded the software onto floppies and installed it yourself. And Often had to work hard to make it work.
  • Today only a small percentage of laptops sold have Linux on it.
  • But Linux is commonly installed on IoT devices – 90% odd
  • But
    • No [easy] way to reinstall it yourself
    • Much worse than laptops
    • GPL includes “The scripts used to control the compilation and install of the executable”
    • “Freedom to Study” is not enough
  • Linksys Wifi router
    • OpenWRT Project
    • Release forced from Linksys and Cisco
    • “Source as received from Linksys from GPL enforcement”
    • Is OpenWRT a Unicorn
      • Few projects with serious alternative firmware project
    • Still sold new after 20 years
  • BusyBox Lawsuits
    • Before IoT was even a term
    • At least one model of Samsung TV -> samygo.tv
    • “Baffles me as to why do the manufactorers want us to buy more hardware”
  • Linux focuses to much on big corp users and ignores hobbyist users
    • Kernel peopel only care about the .c files. Don’t care about the install scripts etc.
    • People at top of Linux now got their start hacking on the devices in front of them.
    • The next generation of developers will be those hackers not from IBM and other big companies
    • You didn’t need anything but a computer and an internet connection to become and upstream developer in those days. This is becoming less true.
    • If the only thing you can install Linux on is a rackmount server, a cloud server or maybe a laptop and none of the IoT devices around you then things don’t look good….
  • Linux was successful because users could install it on their own devices
  • Linux won’t remain the most important GPL program if users can’t install their modifications. Tinkering is what makes Free software great.
  • Upstream matters of course, but downstream matters more.
    • There may be 1000s of Linux developers
    • Put 2 billion people have Linux on their phone – Which is locked down and they can’t reinstall
  • We don’t need a revolution to liberate IoT devices
    • because the words are already there in the GPL
    • We just have to take up our rights
  • What you can do.
    • Request Linux sources on every device you own – Companies have figured out people almost never ask
    • Try to build and install them. If you can’t ask a friend or ask Conservancy for help
    • If it doesn’t build/install it is a GPL violation, report it Conservancy
    • Step up as a leader of a project devices that matter to you.
  • Why this will work
    • The problem seems insurmountable now, only because we have been led astray
    • First and absolutely necessary step towards privacy and scurity on those devices
    • When the user controls the OS again, the balance of power can be restored
  • Questions
    • Best way to ask for source code? Try email, the manual should say.
    • How to get the new code on the device? Needs some push onto industry
    • What if writing requires expensive equipment? Fairly rare, many devices allow over-the-air upgrades, we should be able to go the same way.
    • Is there a list of compliant devices? – Proposed in past. Want to go softly at first in many cases
    • Am I exposed to liability if I modify and distribute code I receive? – Almost certainly note, contact Conservatory if you are threatened.

Web Security 2019 – James Bromberger

James Bromberger
  • History of browser
    • No images
    • Images
    • Netscape with crappy ‘International Security”
    • https takeup is growing
    • Chrome is hitting 60-70%
    • 82% of browser are “modern”, crossover of chrome users to new version is about 3 months.
  • PCI
    • Remove early TLS in mid 2018
    • TLS 1.1 and higher allowed
  • The legacy browser has gone in the real world
    • Some envs still behind, but moving ahead
  • What can we do with as little changes as possible?
  • 0. Don’t use http, use https
    • Use letsencrypt
    • Stds reducing max length of certs from 5 years
  • 1. TLS protocols
    • 7 versions out there (old ones SSL).
    • Most over 10+ years old
    • Only 6 in the wild
    • 3 not-known to be comprimised ( 1.1 1.2 1.3 )
    • Very few clients only support 1.1 and not 1.2 (small gap in 2006-2008 ). IE supports 1.2. So maybe disable 1.1
    • Log the protocol being used so you have data on your users
    • OTOH not much supports 1.3 yet
    • Use 1.2 and 1.3
    • Turn off on the Browsers to
    • Looks at which libraries you are using in code that makes https connections
  • 2. Cypher Suite Optimisation
    • New EC certs for key exchange
    • New certs getting changed to ECDSA
    • AES is standard for bulk encryption. GCM mode is best although windows 9 can’t do (Upgrade to 10!)
    • MAC/Cehecksum – remove MD5, SHA1, remove SHA2-256+ , New ones coming
  • Security Header
    • Content-Security-Policy
    • Referer-Policy – Usually locked down
    • Feature-Policy – lots of stuff
    • ” X-Content-Type-Options: no-sniff ” – don’t guess content type
  • 4. CAA
    • Around 200 Cert Authorities
    • Authorized record type (CAA record) lists what CAs are allowed to issue certs for you.
    • DNS Sec is useful – But during US Govt shutdown DNS keys are expring
  • 5. Sub Resource Integrity
    • Scripts included by html
    • Can include checksums in html calling to varify
  • 6. Cookies
    • Secure – httpsonly
    • “SameSite=Strict” – Reduces cross site request forgery
  • 7. Http2
    • Binary wire protocol
    • Apache 2.4 on debian
    • Forces better protocols
  • 8. Lots more
    • New compression algorithms
    • Network error logs
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Linux.conf.au 2019 – Friday – Keynote: A linux.conf.au Story – Rusty Russell

Rusty Russell
  • Bitcoin Billionare
  • 1992
    • The days of SunOS
    • Read the GNU Manafesto
  • 1995
    • Using GPP compiler at work
    • First patch accepted on November 1995
  • 1997
    • USENIX Conference in california
    • UseLinux – Had a track for Linux
    • Hung around a bunch of top guys in Linux talked about added SMP to Linux
    • Talk on porting Linux to Sparc by David Miller & Miguel de Icaza. Going into improvements and showing how Linux port to sparc bet Solaris in the Lmbench benchmarks on same hardware.
    • Relaized lived in a world where students could create and port OS that bet the original OS from the vendor
  • 1997 – 1998
    • Wrote (with another guy) and got ipchains added to Linux
    • “I woke up one morning and I was kernel firewall maintainer”
    • Got job people paid to work on Linux firewall code
  • 1998
    • Decided needed an Australian Linux conference
    • Oct-Nov visited a bunch of LUGS to invite people and find person to collect money.
    • People not sure what they wanted to go to a Linux conference ( $380 bucks)
    • Invited John Maddog Hall
    • Created and ran a slashdot ad
    • Created card got into $14k negative
    • Last session of the 3rd day, reran the 3 best talks
  • Three stories from 1998
    • Tutorial Books for each of the tutorials- Couldn’t get photocopies from commercial facility, so had to make 400 copies of books via 4 coin operated photocopiers
    • Tridge bought up a triple-CD burner. People ran it in relays
    • Somebody said. “I can’t believe you don’t have conference tshirts”. He bought white tshirts, got them screen printed and sold them.
  • End of conference Tridge organised a gift from the Speakers to Rusty. Pewter Beer mug
  • Linux.conf.au after 1999
    • 2001 scheduled 3 talks from Rusty. At the same time
    • Met Tridge at LCA – Moved to Canberra they did AusLabs
  • How Great Projects
    • Smart and Capable enough to complete them
    • They are Dumb enough to try
    • When somebody tells you about a project?
      • That sounds Great, Tell me more
      • What can I do to help
    • Enable people’s enthusiasms
    • Collaboration is a super Power
    • Get along with people is a skill
    • “Constructive absenteeism”
  • Headwinds to collaboration
    • Signs are welcoming to some people
    • Other people get signs that they are not so welcoming
    • Good are seeing them when they are aimed at them, not so good are even seeing they exist when they are not aimed at them.

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Linux.conf.au 2019 – Thursday – Session 3

Open Source Tools for Publishing and Processing Earth Observation Imagery – Paul Haesler

Paul Haesler
  • Golden age of satelite imagery
  • Geostationary – One area – Good for weather
  • Circum-polar orbits – all over earth every 10-16 days
  • Data processing Chain
    • Level 0 – Raw
    • Level 1 – Geo rectify – Measure surface radience
    • Level 2 – Curroect for sun, sat angle, atmostphere – ARD – Records surface reflectance
  • Landsat-8 (25-30m , 8-16 day cycle, data since 1982 ) Sentinel-2 ( better, 5 day cycle, 10m resolution)
  • Digital Earth Australia
  • The Problem
    • Open Data Cube
    • Python, based on xarry
    • Postgres for metadata
    • Actual satellite sata from local or network repo (transparently)
    • GUI maintained by CEOS
  • Nationalmap.govt.au
    • Aims to publish all Aus OpenData that can be mapped
    • Based on TerriaJS
    • Some DEA data was already being publish but need for additional stuff
  • COGs – Cloud Optimised GeoTIFFs
  • DataCube_ows
    • Lightweight web application server
    • Developed by Datda61 for GA
    • WMS
      • OGC Web Map service
      • Good for general-usage web apps
      • Returns standard images (eg png)
      • Support 1.3 well, works with most clients
      • Styles for band-mapping
      • on-the-fly solar angle correction
    • WCS
      • Version 1 supported
      • Works well with TerriaJS , works okay with QGIS or ArcGIS
  • Next Steps
    • WPS for on-the-fly processing is regularly discussed
    • Better ingegration with datacube-core
    • More recent WCS versions inc WCS-2EO
    • Sparse Data problems

The Tragedy of systemd – Benno Rice

  • References to Contempt Culture
  • Ancestry of Systemd
    • Unix: Happy accident, place, time, reaction to the previous thing
    • housekeeping functions – “mounting filesystems and starting daemons”
    • inetd – Super Daemon for all sockets – “worked well until The Internet Happened”
  • Then the Internet happened
    • forking a process per connection doesn’t scale
    • Lots of persistent state for things like databases
    • Service
      • Might be a bunch of processors
      • Init starts but doesn’t manage
      • initab can restart things in SystemV
  • System Config vs Service bootstrap
    • Mixed in togeather
    • Service management needs more
  • Windows NT
    • Service model there from beginning
  • MacOs
    • Application Model means lot richer interaction with the host
    • Application delegate
    • launchd
  • The Idea of Systemd
    • launchd
      • Service handling in MacOS
      • Took over init, inetd, cron
      • Can listen on ports. Start stuff. doesn’t need to start on boot, boot gets faster, power reduced, security improved
      • Move system services to daemons, then start daemons as needed
    • From Launchd to systemd
      • upstart
        • event driven
        • shell based
      • Rethinking PID 1 – Lennart
      • “Start less” , “Start more in parallel” , “listen to hardware and software changes”
      • cites launchd
  • System management
    • Everything is a lot more dynamic
    • Hotplug , DHCP , etc
    • Don’t install 15 different packages that all behave differently
    • But systemd will have to do things in a different way to those 15 other things
  • The reality of systemd
    • Widely adopted ( 2011 – 2015 )
    • Arguments
      • Violates the unix philosphy – actually systemd actually is many binaries
      • It is bloated and monolithic – Well it does do a lot of thing
      • It is buggy – So is all software, actually a good failure mode
      • I can’t stand Lennart Poettering – He’s delivered. “I won’t defend his community interaction”
      • It is not portable – UNIX is dead – Posix isn’t really a thing anymore, there are not a bunch of crazy Linux variations. “These days you have Linux and some rounding errors”
    • cgroups
    • User-Level units
  • Change – System is a lot of disruptive change
  • The Tragedy of Change
    • Nerds love change as long as we are the ones doing it
    • System boot ups using shell script interaction is like the old blanky we should of got rid of 20 years ago
    • The Knee-jerk – Abuse is not Cool
  • The Next Generation
    • They See a lot more APIs
    • Thinking in Containers is different from thinking in not-containers
  • What does Systemd have that FreeBSD (or even future Linux) could use, or could do better
    • Message Transport
    • RPC Framework
    • Kernel and Use-space services should look similarly to the services above them
    • Service Lifescycle
    • Automation via API – Easier for vendors to write appliances
    • Containers
    • The System Layer
      • Doesn’t have to be the only implementation of theis
    • Consistent Device Naming
    • Better Log/Event/Audit Handling
    • A new model of an application ( a bunch of things managed as a Unit, See the MacOS model)
  • Questions
    • Launchd option – Too MacOS specific
    • Dynamic Libraries = DLL Hell – Containers avoid, different problems
    • Is reaction to systemd scaring other big changes off – Possible, hard to write, very hard to handle the social issues to push though
    • Where is FreeBSD at? – A long way away, no consensus this sort of change needed
    • Should everything have been swallowed up – Thought experiment, If systemd had instead defined an API for separate projects instead of writing them itself, would that have worked? And now we do know what is needed could we switch to a separate model with APIs?
    • Enbeded Devices need systemd – Anything Dynamic needs it
    • What Push back from FreeBSD – Something like that but not systemd. Some like launchd
    • What needs to change in community and systemd team to make things better – See Adam Harvey’s talk on language changes. Hard since everythign is asking for different stuff, systemd people.
    • What should systemd go further into – Messageing and RPC stuff more pervasive and more thought about. Something into the kernel.

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Linux.conf.au 2019 – Thursday – Session 2

Go All-In! – Bdale Garbee

Bdale Garbee
  • How to get companies involved in FOSS
  • First contribution of source code was almost 40 years ago
  • Used Vax BSD at CMU – HAd the deal with an obscure priesthood
  • KA9Q TCP/IP stack for amateur radio in the 80s
  • Appearance of RMS in my world
    • GNU Manifesto
    • 4 Freedoms
    • GPL
  • Debian
  • Worked as LInux CTO from one of the largest IT companies in the world
  • Collaborative Development Model
    • Spread out besides just making FOSS
    • No one company in charge
    • Diverse range of contributors, massively different motivations
    • We get a software commons we all get to benifit from
  • Free Software means Freedom of Choice
    • Reduced barriers between users and producers of software
    • Any user can be a dev, or pay someone to dev
    • If upsteams goes bad, things can be forked
  • What it means to be successful when you are operating in an open and collaborative model?
    • The goal of a trad company is for investment to yeld technological control points
    • First mover advantage
    • Differentiated features, preferably patentable
    • Collaborative dev model allows us to recognise the benifit of collaroation on all the non-differentialting elements. Leavign more value to the users / customers
    • Thinks less about control points, more about points of affinity. What is it that would make a customer want to user you products or services?
  • Innovation these days largely takes place in the open space
  • Wrights/Goddard – They didn’t get told to to the next new thing, they just started it as a hobby
  • Free Software enables people who we don’t know exist to create innovation and invent things we can’t imagine
  • Long Tail of Contribution
    • Example: People who did one Linux Kernel contribution, often to fix on specific thing that was causing them problems.
    • No company on earth that can hire that resource
    • Needs to be easy for people to access the code and make contributions
  • Attributed of Successful Communities
    • Active contribution and collaboration
    • Diverse participation
    • Solid core of code
    • Recognizable mainline trunk
    • Unified, cohesive structure
    • Low barriers to entry
  • Choosing the right license
    • Businesses can only be successful with permissive licenses
    • The most successful projects seems to be communities built around open contribution
    • Share-alike licenses stop possible problem of Closed Corporate fork while the original project withers

Beach Wreck Ignition: Challenges in open source voice –
Kathy Reid

Kathy Reid
  • MycroftAI – One of the few open source voice stacks
  • Introduction to a Voice Stack
    • Wake Word – eg “Hey Alexie”
    • Utterance – Phrase of command
    • Speech2text processor
    • Looks for keywords etc
    • Runs a command
    • Dialog – acknowledger + response
  • Wake Word
    • PocketPhinx, Snowbox, Mycroft Ai Precise
    • Some use Phonemes (smallest units of sounce in a language)
    • Hard to tell differences between all words
    • Always listening, connected to internet
    • Some use Use Neural networks
    • Low accuracy can cause frustration
      • Bias towards male speaker (10:1 male:female in dataset). Also more with American than other accents
      • To unbias the sample had to tag the samples with ethnicity, gender etc. Which was a problem with ethics of taggign samples/speakers
  • Speech to Test
    • Kaldi – no network needed, compute heavy
    • Deep Speech – From mozilla
    • Challenges
      • Lots of accents out there. Hard
      • Only trained for most common accents
      • Also problem with regional slang
      • Need to train on individual speaker
      • But need lots of data to understand a speaker
  • Endangered Languages
    • No commercial imperative to cover them
    • Mycroft Translate using Pootle to translate command words to 40 languages
    • Issues for gendered languages, formality
  • Intent Parsers
    • Rasa, Mycroft Adapt, Mycroft Padatious
    • Intent Collisions – Use confidence scoring depending on how explicit the request is.
  • Text to Speech
    • Mary TTS, Espeak, Mycroft Mimic, Mycroft Mimic 2
    • Mimic recording studio, Need 40-60 hours audio
    • Challenges
      • Natural sounding voice – making the voice sounds not robotics
      • Pronunciation – often requires after creation

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Linux.conf.au 2019 – Thursday – Session 1

A Long Day’s Journey Into Backups – Rachel Kelly

Rachael Kelly
  • A journey in four stages
  • Version 1 – State of Backups Aug 2017
    • Needed to look though old logs to see how far back problem wentDaily diffing from duply/duplicity – But where was the original?
    • Tried to restore data from old backups
    • Couldn’t restore from backup since original was too old
    • Couldn’t get it to work, needed something new fast
  • Version 2
    • Created tarball, uploaded to AWS S3, via daily cron
    • Done quickly
    • Not reliable sending to s3
    • Needed ongoing work
    • Big Win: But at least complient, and we could get data back out
  • Try 3 : Shiny EFS
    • EFS is AWS’s NFS solution
    • tarball created on local EFS disk, easypeasy
    • Big Win: Reliable backups, incorporated into infrastructure, retrievable data. 8 weeks off backups
    • Miscalculated cost: About 10x original estimate
  • Try 4: Tarball to s3 redux
    • Tarball to s3. PLUS infrastructure
    • Would work going forward
    • S3 approx 1/10 the cost of EFS
    • Big Win: Reliable, inexpensive, functional, dependable
    • Discovered that EFS not encrypted
    • Able to manage well
  • Current Solution
    • cron job calls a bash script
    • Safety in bash: set -euo pipefail
    • tar up the filesystem (with exclusions)
    • Set it to s3 with aws cli (with hosts’s hostname)
    • After 56 days is sent to glacier
    • restore script to get a file (uses AWS credientials of current instance)
  • What’s Next?
    • I could work on backups forever and they will never be perfect
    • Ability to restore to a new instance
    • Want to be able to get files from anywhere
    • Microservice backups
    • Deglacierisation
    • What we need
    • Better CLI tool – safer
  • What I really really want
    • A decent enterprise solution
    • NIH is a dangerous habit
    • Speaker knows no one using a hosted enterprise solution
    • Vendor solutions seem to be crazy overkill
  • Feedbacks
  • Amanda Recomended
  • Every morning restore dev enviroment from anon prodouting one. Comet Backup
  • Wasabi compatable with s3
  • Recoment “Retrospec”
  • tarsnap
  • bacula
  • rsnapshot
  • Looking at Borg Back
  • rsync to zfs, zfs send
  • Personal backups, using duplicity
  • Industry 4.0
    • After mechanization, mass production and automation
    • The machines run everything and we reap all the benefits – maybe
  • Robot Hype
    • Post AI winter
  • Implementoer’s bias (top down design of neutral network setup, choose number of layers etc)

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