Audiobook Reviews – September 2021

The Second World War by Antony Beevor

A single volume covering the whole conflict in reasonable detail. Covered a few areas ie China that other volumes skip. Does the job. 3/5

Handprints on Hubble: An Astronaut’s Story of Invention by Kathryn D. Sullivan

Mostly an astronaut memoir with some extra material on the Hubble development and launch. Some good anecdotes and insights into the work to make the Hubble serviceable. 3/5

The Year of Less: How I Stopped Shopping, Gave Away My Belongings, and Discovered Life Is Worth More Than Anything You Can Buy in a Store by Cait Flanders

Memoir rather than self help. Okay read but not very actionable. 2/5

Space 2069: After Apollo: Back to the Moon, to Mars, and Beyond by David Whitehouse

A “future history” of Space travel for the next 50 years (to the 100th Anniversary of the moon landings). Plausible ideas and good science. 3/5

Second Best: The Amazing Untold Histories of the Greatest Runners-Up by Ben Pobjie

A series of amusing stories about people who didn’t come first. About 50% Australian examples. High jokes/minute with okay hit rate. 2/5

To Engineer Is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design by Henry Petroski

A very readable book on Engineering successes and failures and what can be learnt from them (and how things should be learnt). 3/5

My Scoring System

  • 5/5 = Brilliant, top 5 book of the year
  • 4/5 = Above average, strongly recommend
  • 3/5 = Average. in the middle 70% of books I read
  • 2/5 = Disappointing
  • 1/5 = Did not like at all
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Auckland Gondolas: Practical or a rope to nowhere?

With the cancelling of the SkyPath and the short-lived $800 million Pedestrian/Cycling bridge proposal it seems that the only options for the next harbour crossing will be a full scale tunnel or bridge.

However I came across the Youtube video where the author suggests a gondola crossing of Auckland Harbour. I did a bit of investigation myself and looked at some possible routes, the majority of which appear not to work but two might benefit from further investigation.

In the last decade urban gondola systems have become increasingly popular. They work well in difficult terrain such as steep hills, valley or river crossings. They are also relatively cheap which makes them popular in middle-income countries in the Americas.

The Medellin MetroCable in Columbia currently has 6 lines, most of these act as feeders from hill suburbs to Tram or Metro lines.

The Cablebús in Mexico City opened two lines in 2021 connecting low income transport-poor suburbs with metro stations.

Cablebús in Mexico City

Technology

The technology I am assuming is a Detachable Monocable Gondola with cars similar to the Emirates Air-Line in London, Medellin MetroCable and Mexican Cablebús.

Monocable means that there is a single moving cable. Detachable means that each car unhooks from the cable inside stations and moves slowly (or even stops) for easy boarding and unboarding. The general characteristics of these systems are:

  • 8-10 person cars ( able to carry bicycles, wheelchairs etc )
  • Speed around 20 km/h
  • Capacity 2500 people/hour in each direction.
  • Approx 1 car every 15 seconds.

Note that it is possible to increase capacity, for instance the new Medellin line P has a capacity of 4,000 people per hour in each direction.

Cars in Station ready for boarding

Options for routes

I have provided details about two possible routes:

  • Route One is a simple crossing of Auckland Harbour just east of the Auckland Harbour Bridge.
  • Route Two connects the CBD (near Elliot Street), the University of Auckland and Parnell.

Note that apart from at stations cable systems are along able to make very slight turns at each tower. I have pretty much assumed each line will be straight apart of at stations.

Route One – East of the Bridge.

The will start from a station near the current Ponsonby Cruising Club. A 50m mast 150m north, then a 700m span across the harbour to another 50m mast and then a station in the Stokes Point Reserve.

Total length is 1100m. Travel time around 5 minutes.

This route is a direct replacement of the Skypath. It would cater to cyclists and pedestrians needing to get between Stokes Point and Westhaven. The exact placement of the stations is flexible. The main difficulties are the height required to provide room for tall ships to pass underneath. The Emirates line has similar requirements to allow Thames river traffic and higher than usual towers.

Apart from some sightseers this line would mainly serve cyclists wishing to go directly between North Shore and the city. This Greater Auckland article shows the 2020 Skypath business case was estimating 4500 daily users for the Skypath a few years after it was built.

The high towers and steep climb on the Emirates Air-line

Route Two – Elliot Street to Parnell via Wellesley Street and the University

This would start with a station near the corner of Elliot Street and Wellesley Street West (possibly in front of Bledisloe House). The line would go east above Wellesley Street and over the Art Gallery, Albert Park and parts of the University to a station at the University (perhaps at the corner of Grafton Road and Symonds Street). The line would then go across Grafton Gully to a station at Parnell Train Station and then up the hill to terminate on Parnell Road. The total length is around 1700 metres.

The Elliot Street to Parnell route

There are 4 stations on this route.

  • Parnell Village (near 236 Parnell Road) is an employment & entertainment area.
  • Parnell Train Station is near Parnell and the University but down a hill from both and across busy roads from the University. It is within walking distance of the Auckland Museum.
  • The University is well served by Symonds Street buses but not by rail and is cut off from the CBD and Parnell.
  • The Elliot Street endpoint would be just 50 metres from both the Aotea Train Station and a proposed Queen Street light rail station near the Civic.
Starting Point and direction of Line to University / Parnell

The idea of this line is to cross the difficult terrain that separates Parnell, Parnell Station, the University and the CBD. There should be a lot of possible journeys between these four. It will expand the effective radius of Aotea Station, Parnell Station and a Civic light-rail station. It would also improve Parnell’s connectivity.

Cablebús line over a busy road

Travel times ( assuming 20km/h speed and 1 minute per station ) on the most likely journeys:

JourneyWalking DistanceWalking timeCable distanceGondola time
Elliot St to University800m11 min600m4 min
Elliot St to Parnell 2100m30 min1700m9 min
Parnell Station to Parnell400m6 min250m3 min
Parnell Station to University1400m20 min800m5 min

This line has the potential to be very busy. All the stops on the route would benefit from the improved inter-connectivity.

Two extensions to the line are possible. At the Parnell end the line could be extended down to a station located in the valley around St Georges Bay Road to serve the businesses (and housing) located around there.

Another possible extension of the line would be directly along Wellesley St West from Elliot Street to Victoria Park. I am unsure if traffic to/from the Victoria Park area would justify this however.

Other Routes

I had problems finding other routes that were suitable for gondolas. I’ve included a route to Birkenhead as an example of one that does not appear to be competitive with the existing bus as an example.

The majority of possible routes had various combinations of long distances (which take too long at 20km/h), low density/population at station catchment, already being covered by existing links and lack of obvious demand.

Westhaven to Birkenhead via Northcote Point and Marine Terrace.

This starts on the western side of the Harbour Bridge near a small Park/Bungy HQ. It goes over the harbour alongside the Bridge and has a station near “The Wharf”. The Line would then go across Little Shoal Bay to Little Shoal Bay Reserve. There would be a turning point there to go north-west over the gully of the Le Roys Bush Reserve to a station on the side of Birkenhead Avenue near the viewing platform.

Length 3.9km and end to end travel time of around 15 minutes.

The problem with this line is that Westhaven is not a good destination. Route One across the harbour fills a gap for cyclists but extending the line to Birkenhead doesn’t seem significantly improve the catchment (especially for non-cyclists).

Other possible routes I looked at

  • A simple crossing West of the Bridge
  • From the south-east of St Mary’s Bay to Stokes Point
  • From Wynyard Quarter to Stokes Point.
  • From St Mary’s Bay to Stokes Point and then the Akoranga Bus station
  • From Wellesley Street West to Stokes Point.
  • Between Devonport and the city
  • Above Lake Road from Devonport to Takapuna
  • Between Stokes Point and Bayswater
  • Between Akoranga Bus station and Devonport

Conclusion

Urban Gondolas do not work as a general solution to urban public transport but are suited to certain niche routes across difficult terrain.

Starting from the simple harbour crossing I looked at several cross harbour routes but most were unpromising due to lack of under-served destinations that could be easily connected. I ended up just keeping the basic harbour crossing to fill the gap for cyclists and walkers.

The Elliot Street to Parnell line on the other hand might be a good fit for a gondola. It is less than 2km long but connects 3 popular locations and an under-utilised train station.

Costs of gondolas are fairly low compared to other PT options. The two Cablebús lines in Mexico City are each around 10km long and cost $US 146m and $US 208m. Ballpark estimates might be between $NZ 100 million to $NZ 200 million for each route, hopefully closer to $100m.

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Audiobook Reviews – August 2021

Antarctica’s Lost Aviator: The Epic Adventure to Explore the Last Frontier on Earth by Jeff Maynard

Biography of Lincoln Ellsworth “an insecure man in search of a purpose” concentrating on his various polar expeditions in the 1920s and 30s culminating in an attempt to fly across antarctic. 3/5

Extra Life: A Short History of Living Longer by Steven Johnson

The story of Medical, Public health and other measures in the last 150 years that have dramatically raised life expectancy. The reality behind some well known stories. 3/5

Dr No by Ian Fleming

Bond returns to Jamaica for a soft assignment that turns out not to be soft after all. He dodges assassins and investigates a mysterious island. 3/5

Never Lost Again: The Google Mapping Revolution That Sparked New Industries and Augmented Our Reality by Bill Kilday

A insider’s account of the mapping company Keyhole that became Google Maps. Good mix of stories and analysis. 4/5

My Scoring System

  • 5/5 = Brilliant, top 5 book of the year
  • 4/5 = Above average, strongly recommend
  • 3/5 = Average. in the middle 70% of books I read
  • 2/5 = Disappointing
  • 1/5 = Did not like at all
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Audiobook Reviews – July 2021

The Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge by David McCullough

Another McCullough classic. Centered on designers/builders the Roebling family but covering everything about the build. 4/5

Reaching for the Moon: A Short History of the Space Race
by Roger D. Launius

Very much a short overview, but unusually covers the Soviet programme as well. Concentrates on the politics more than technical details. 3/5

From Russia with Love by Ian Fleming

The Russian counter-intelligence agency sets a trap for Bond. Interesting the first third of the book is the Russian preparations. Bond is not seen. Exciting read. 4/5

Off the Cliff: How the Making of Thelma and Louise Drove Hollywood To the Edge by Becky Aikman

Well written book about the pre-production, production and reaction to the movie. Well researched with quotes from most people involved. Enjoyable. 4/5

Project Hail Mary by Andy Weir

A semi-repeat of The Martin where a lone astronaut has to science the shit out of a bad situation. This time to save humanity. I enjoyed and if you like the Martian you will too. 4/5

Accidental Presidents: Eight Men Who Changed America by Jared Cohen

Profiles of 8 VPs who became US President. A biography, circumstances of evaluation and assesment of Presidency. Plus some near-misses and Ford who misses the main list?! 3/5

Swallows and Amazons by Arthur Ransome

Set in 1930s England, a group of children aged 7-12 sail in boats, camp on islands and have adventures on a lake. Fun Children’s adventure book. 4/5

My Scoring System

  • 5/5 = Brilliant, top 5 book of the year
  • 4/5 = Above average, strongly recommend
  • 3/5 = Average. in the middle 70% of books I read
  • 2/5 = Disappointing
  • 1/5 = Did not like at all
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Audiobook Reviews – June 2021

Exercised: Why Something We Never Evolved to Do Is Healthy and Rewarding by Daniel Lieberman

Uses lots of studies of exercise in non-industrial societies, Gorillas and Chimpanzees. Contrasts with industrial society. A bit of advice too. 4/5

I love Capitalism: An American Story by Ken Langone

Memoir of businessman and investor. Telling of his upbringing, various deals and stories. Enough good tales to keep my interest 3/5

Liftoff: Elon Musk and the Desperate Early Days that Launched SpaceX by Eric Berger

Very well written, lots of key people interviewed and lots of details. The author is a space specialist. Highly recommend for Space fans 5/5

The Great Halifax Explosion: A World War I Story of Treachery, Tragedy, and Extraordinary Heroism by John U. Bacon

Well written book covering the the lead-up and aftermath. Picks several people to follow so reader has a connection. Well done. 4/5

My Scoring System

  • 5/5 = Brilliant, top 5 book of the year
  • 4/5 = Above average, strongly recommend
  • 3/5 = Average. in the middle 70% of books I read
  • 2/5 = Disappointing
  • 1/5 = Did not like at all

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Audiobook Reviews – May 2021

Alexander the Great: His Life and His Mysterious Death by Anthony Everitt

A fairly straight biography except for some early chapters setting the scene. Keep things interesting most of the time. 3/5

Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance by Angela Duckworth

“The secret to outstanding achievement is not talent, but a passionate persistence. In other words, grit.” . Usual pop-psych with the usual good stories 3/5

100 Side Hustles: Unexpected Ideas for Making Extra Money Without Quitting Your Day Job by Chris Guillebeau

100 small businesses and their story. With lessons learnt from each and some themes. Told with lots of puns. 4/5

How The Internet Happened: From Netscape to the iPhone by Brian McCullough

Covering the big internet events and companies between 1993 and 2008. Mosaic, AOL, Ebay, Amazon, Yahoo, Napster and ending with the Ipod. Lots of good stories some new angles. 4/5

Diamonds are Forever by Ian Fleming

James Bond infuriates a Diamond smuggling operation run by American Gangsters. Lots of period detail and violent set pieces. 4/5



Benjamin Franklin: An American Life by Walter Isaacson

A nice short biography that attempts to highlight neglected areas such as Franklin’s family and friends his scientific work. Fun without missing too much detail. 4/5

My Scoring System

  • 5/5 = Brilliant, top 5 book of the year
  • 4/5 = Above average, strongly recommend
  • 3/5 = Average. in the middle 70% of books I read
  • 2/5 = Disappointing
  • 1/5 = Did not like at all

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Audiobook Reviews – April 2021

Inheriting Clutter: How to Calm the Chaos Your Parents Leave Behind by Julie Hall

Lots of specific advice for Children and Parents on preparing for and handling estates. Lots of good advice on defusing feuds before they start. 3/5

Shortest Way Home: One Mayor’s Challenge and a Model for America’s Future by Pete Buttigieg

Memoir of a small-city mayor who grew up gay in Indiana. Timed to come out for his presidential run in 2019. Nice enough read with a good mix of stories. 3/5

Moonraker by Ian Fleming

James Bond investigates the mysterious industrialist Hugo Drax and his nuclear missile project which is vital to Britain’s security. Exciting and well written. 3/5

Some Assembly Required: Decoding Four Billion Years of Life, from Ancient Fossils to DNA by Neil Shubin

A very accessible account of how various ways genetic information is passed down was discovered, who found it and how it works. 4/5

My Scoring System

  • 5/5 = Brilliant, top 5 book of the year
  • 4/5 = Above average, strongly recommend
  • 3/5 = Average. in the middle 70% of books I read
  • 2/5 = Disappointing
  • 1/5 = Did not like at all
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Audiobook Reviews – March 2021

The Dream Machine: The Untold History of the Notorious V-22 Osprey by Richard Whittle

The story of tilt-rotor aircraft & the long history of the V-22’s development. Covers defense politics and technical matters equally well. 4/5

Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet by Claire L. Evans

A series of stories about individuals, not just about the Internet but about women and early computing, hypertext, etc. Interesting and well written. 3/5

The Fifth Risk by Michael Lewis

Lewis interviews people involved in the Obama to Trump transition at 3 major government agencies. He profiles the people, their jobs and in most cases how the Trump people underestimated the Dept’s importance. 3/5

OK Boomer, Let’s Talk: How My Generation Got Left Behind by Jill Filipovic

Mostly a stats dump with a few profiles and accounts of struggling millennials sprinkled in. With a weird tone shift to boomer-love in the last chapter. Okay I guess 3/5

Six Days of Impossible: Navy SEAL Hell Week – A Doctor Looks Back by Robert Adams

A first-hand account of a training class in 1974/75 where only 11 of the 71 starters graduated. Fun read although some interviews with non-graduates would have provided a contrast. 3/5

Three Laws of Nature: A Little Book on Thermodynamics by R Stephen Berry

Science mixed in with some history, designed for those with minimal science. The equations were simple but numerous & didn’t work in audiobook format. Try the printed version. 2/5

Space Odyssey: Stanley Kubrick Arthur C Clarke and the Making of a Masterpiece by Michael Benson

A detailed account of the film’s making from pre-production though to the bad reviews of the first release. Covers most aspects of the film and people involved. 4/5

The Soul of a New Machine by Tracy Kidder

Pulitzer Prize winning story of a team creating a new model of minicomputer in the late-1970s. Good portraits of the team members and aspects of the tech. 4/5

My Scoring System

  • 5/5 = Brilliant, top 5 book of the year
  • 4/5 = Above average, strongly recommend
  • 3/5 = Average. in the middle 70% of books I read
  • 2/5 = Disappointing
  • 1/5 = Did not like at all
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Moving my backups to restic

I’ve recently moved my home backups over to restic . I’m using restic to backup the /etc and /home folders and on all machines are my website files and databases. Media files are backed up separately.

I have around 220 Gigabytes of data, about half of that is photos.

My Home setup

I currently have 4 regularly-used physical machines at home: two workstations, one laptop and server. I also have a VPS hosted at Linode and a VM running on the home server. Everything is running Linux.

Existing Backup Setup

For at least 15 years I’ve been using rsnaphot for backup. rsnapshot works by keeping a local copy of the folders to be backup up. To update the local copy it uses rsync over ssh to pull down a copy from the remote machine. It then keeps multiple old versions of files by making a series of copies.

I’d end up with around 12 older versions of the filesystem (something like 5 daily, 4 weekly and 3 monthly) so I could recover files that had been deleted. To save space rsnapshot uses hard links so only one copy of a file is kept if the contents didn’t change.

I also backed up a copy to external hard drives regularly and kept one copy offsite.

The main problem with rsnapshot was it was a little clunky. It took a long time to run because it copied and deleted a lot of files every time it ran. It also is difficult to exclude folders from being backed up and it is also not compatible with any cloud based filesystems. It also requires ssh keys to login to remote machines as root.

Getting started with restic

I started playing around with restic after seeing some recommendations online. As a single binary with a few commands it seemed a little simpler than other solutions. It has a push model so needs to be on each machine and it will upload from there to the archive.

Restic supports around a dozen storage backends for repositories. These include local file system, sftp and Amazon S3. When you create an archive via “restic init” it creates a simple file structure for the repository in most backends:

You can then use simple commands like “restic backup /etc” to backup files to there. The restic documentation site makes things pretty easy to follow.

Restic automatically encrypts backups and each server needs a key to read/write to it’s backups. However any key can see all files in a repository even those belonging to other hosts.

Backup Strategy with Restic

I decided on the followup strategy for my backups:

  • Make a daily copy of /etc and other files for each server
  • Keep 5 daily and 3 weekly copies
  • Have one copy of data on Backblaze B2
  • Have another copy on my home server
  • Export the copies on the home server to external disk regularly

Backblaze B2 is very similar Amazon S3 and is supported directly by restic. It is however cheaper. Storage is 0.5 cents per gigabyte/month and downloads are 1 cent per gigabyte. In comparison AWS S3 One Zone Infrequent access charges 1 cent per gigabyte/month for storage and 9 cents per gigabyte for downloads.

WhatBackblaze B2 AWS S3
Store 250 GB per month$1.25$2.50
Download 250 GB$2.50$22.50

AWS S3 Glacier is cheaper for storage but hard to work with and retrieval costs would be even higher.

Backblaze B2 is less reliable than S3 (they had an outage when I was testing) but this isn’t a big problem when I’m using them just for backups.

Setting up Backblaze B2

To setup B2 I went to the website and created an account. I would advise putting in your credit card once you finish initial testing as it will not let you add more than 10GB of data without one.

I then created a private bucket and changed the bucket’s lifecycle settings to only keep the last version.

I decided that for security I would have each server use a separate restic repository. This means that I would use a bit of extra space since restic will only keep one copy of a file that is identical on most machines. I ended up using around 15% more.

For each machine I created an B2 application key and set it to have a namePrefix with the name of the machine. This means that each application key can only see files in it’s own folder

On each machine I installed restic and then created an /etc/restic folder. I then added the file b2_env:

export B2_ACCOUNT_ID=000xxxx
export B2_ACCOUNT_KEY=K000yyyy
export RESTIC_PASSWORD=abcdefghi
export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=b2:restic-bucket:/hostname

You can now just run “restic init” and it should create an empty repository, check via b2 to see.

I then had a simple script that runs:

source /etc/restic/b2_env

restic --limit-upload 2000 backup /home/simon --exclude-file /etc/restic/home_exclude

restic --limit-upload 2000 backup /etc /usr/local /var/lib /var/backups

restic --verbose --keep-last 5 --keep-daily 6 --keep-weekly 3 forget

The “source” command loads in the api key and passwords.

The restic backup lines do the actual backup. I have restricted my upload speed to 20 Megabits/second . The /etc/restic/home_exclude lists folders that shouldn’t be backed up. For this I have:

/home/simon/.cache
/home/simon/.config/Slack
/home/simon/.local/share/Trash
/home/simon/.dropbox-dist
/home/simon/Syncthing/audiobooks

as these are folders with regularly changing contents that I don’t need to backup.

The “restic forget” command removes older snapshots. I’m telling it to keep 6 daily copies and 3 weekly copies of my data, plus at least the most recent 5 no matter how old then are.

This command doesn’t actually free up the space taken up by the removed snapshots. I need to run the “restic prune” command for that. However according to this analysis the prune operation generates so many API calls and data transfers that the payback time on disk space saved can be months(!). So for now I’m planning to run the command only occasionally (probably every few months, depending on testing).

Setting up sftp

As well as backing up to B2 I wanted to backup my data to my home server. In this case I decided to have a single repository shared by all the servers.

First of all I created a “restic” account on my server with a home of /home/restic. I then created a folder /media/backups/restic owned by the restic user.

I then followed this guide for sftp-only accounts to restrict the restic user. Relevant lines I changed were “Match User restic” and “ChrootDirectory /media/backups/restic “

On each host I also needed to run “cp /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key /root/.ssh/id_rsa ” and also add the host’s public ssh_key to /home/restic/.ssh/authorized_keys on the server.

Then it is just a case of creating a sftp_env file like in the b2 example above. Except this is a little shorter:

export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=sftp:restic@server.darkmere.gen.nz:shared
export RESTIC_PASSWORD=abcdefgh

For backing up my VPS I had to do another step since this couldn’t push files to my home. What I did was instead add a script that ran on the home server and used rsync to copy down folders from by VPS to local. I used rrsync to restrict this script.

Once I had a local folder I ran “restic –home vps-name backup /copy-of-folder” to backup over sftpd. The –host option made sure the backups were listed for the right machine.

Since the restic folder is just a bunch of files, I’m copying up it directly to external disk which I keep outside the house.

Parting Thoughts

I’m fairly happy with restic so far. I don’t have not run into too many problems or gotchas yet although if you are starting up I’d suggest testing with a small repository to get used to the commands etc.

I have copies of keys in my password manager for recovery.

There are a few things I still have to do including setup up some monitoring and also decide how often to run the prune operation.

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Audiobooks – February 2021

Lost and Founder: A Painfully Honest Field Guide to the Startup World by Rand Fishkin

Advice for perspective founders mixed in with stories from the author’s company. Open about missteps he made to be avoided. 4/5

The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century’s On-line Pioneers by Tom Standage

A short book on the rise of the telegraph and how it changed the world. Peppered with amusing stories and analogies to the Internet. 3/5

Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance by Barack Obama

A memoir of the author growing up and into his mid-20s. Well written and interesting. Audiobook is read by the author but he’s okay. 3/5

The Age of Benjamin Franklin by Robert J. Allison

24 Lectures about various aspects of Franklin and his life. Each lecture is on a theme so they are not chronological. I hadn’t read any biographies previously but this might help. 4/5

The Relentless Moon by Mary Robinette Kowal

3rd book in the Lady Astronaut series. Mostly concerned with trying to find and stop agents sabotaging the Moonbase. Works well and held my interest. 3/5

Business Adventures: Twelve Classic Tales from the World of Wall Street by John Brooks

A collection of long New Yorker articles from the 1960s. One on a stock corner even has parallels with Gamestop in 2021. Interesting and well told even when dated. 3/5

Live and Let Die by Ian Fleming

James Bond takes on Gangster/Agent/Voodoo leader ‘Mr Big’ in Harlem, Florida and Jamaica. The racial stereotypes are dated but could be worse. The story held my interest. 3/5

My Scoring System

  • 5/5 = Brilliant, top 5 book of the year
  • 4/5 = Above average, strongly recommend
  • 3/5 = Average. in the middle 70% of books I read
  • 2/5 = Disappointing
  • 1/5 = Did not like at all
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